Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of extruded pea protein. Sample courtesy of Dr. Taehoon Kim (PI: Dr. Mian Riaz, Process Engineering R& D Center). The freeze – dried sample was sputter-coated with gold and imaged in Tescan Vega SEM at 10 kV accelerating voltage by Dr. Stanislav Vitha. Magnification 26x, 720x, and 4100x was used (left, middle and right panels, respectively). The rectangle in the left panel indicates the area captured at higher magnification in the middle panel.